Women’s Lives: Chapter 1

Sex: classification of individuals as female or male based on their genetic makeup, anatoy, and reproductive functions.

Gender: means that societies and individuals give to female and male categories.

Sex roles: sometimes used to refer to culturally prescribed roles for men and women. Gender roles may be more appropriate.

Similarities approach/beta bias: men and women are basically the same in intellectual and social behaviors. The only differences are due to socialization rather than biology. Has origins in work of early 20th century women psychologists.

Differences viewpoint/alpha bias: emphasizes differences between women and men. These differences have been thought to arise from essential qualities that are rooted in biology. Also known as essentialism.

Has root in Western and Eastern philosophies.

Liberal feminism: belief that women and men should have same political, legal, economic, and educational rights and opportunities. Reform.

Cultural feminism: belief that women and men are different and that more respect should be given to women’s special qualities.

Socialist feminism: attitude that gender inequality is rooted in economic equality.

Radical feminism: belief that gender inequality is based on male oppression of women

Patriarchy: male control/dominance over women

Women of color feminism: view that both racism and classism must e recognized as being as important as sexism

Racism: bias against other because of ethnicity

Classism: bias based on social class

Sexism: gender based bias

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